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A Passion Avenue For Science


Waste issues, prominent in Indonesia, are studied to find new solutions and alternative applications for textiles, electronics, and other technology. As the fourth biggest population in the world, Indonesia’s waste is growing exponentially and can cause serious threats to the environment and society. However, this research shows that biomaterials like Chitosan and Algae can be extracted and formed into nano threads using the newest methodology. The solution can bring the scientific community to understand nanotechnology better and prove nanotechnology’s efficacy for waste optimization. This scientific journal will guide readers to be able to understand the complex and underappreciated properties of chitosan in nanotechnology. Moreover, this research will provide meaningful integration of this research into the real-world applications for the industry and manufacturing.


Living in an aquaculture-oriented country affects the daily life of most Indonesians, providing labor, business, and food. As Indonesia has one of the highest seafood consumption rates, its seafood waste has exponentially increased over the years and growing at an alarming rate. Other than fish, crustacean, like crabs, mussels, lobsters, shrimps, is a major                                     delicacy for many cultures in Indonesia. Naturally, the waste                                                 – the shell, hard outer layer or insides – are thrown away.                                     However, scientists have recently discovered the profound                                           usage that a secondary biomaterial like crab shells can bring.

In addition to the waste products of seafood, another product of marine aquaculture is algae. This product naturally thrives in the ocean and grows rapidly, often too quickly that it destroys habitats in the ocean. Currently, scientists and food manufacturers use algae for jelly or as a food-safe  thickening agent, but recent discoveries have uncovered more potential  in this biomaterial. If scientists can utilize these waste products, not only  will waste be reduced and optimized, but the industry can see these  waste products in a different light.

Developing countries like Indonesia often overlook environmental harms as they focus more on the development and rapid growth of the economy and infrastructures. As scientists, they can take advantage by utilizing waste products like crustacean shells and algae to create future medicine, electrical appliances, fabrics, and other inventions, while expanding the scientific knowledge of nanotechnology. Thus, maximizing waste products can shape society to reuse and recycle, which is a positive contribution to the environment.

Experimental Design

Methodology Overview:

Main Method : Motor and Wheel Roll

The chitosan and alginate solutions are pulled upwards by the circular motion of the wheel. The threads are collected on   the wheel and later         unrolled to be wind       dried in room temperature.

Secondary method : Pump Method

The two solutions are pulled from each beaker by separate pumps. The solutions are extruded beside each other with       a sharp tip to form a  thread. Ethanol is provided to speed up drying process.


  1. Fine Chitosan Powder

  2. Sodium Alginate Powder

  3. 2% Acetic Acid

  4. Carbon Nanotube (CNT)

  5. Graphene

The Chitosan is dissolved in 2% Acetic Acid to create a 1.5wt% solution. The alginate should be 1wt%.

Data Analysis

There are multiple factors affecting the strength (stress) and the flexibility (strain) of the threads. One of the major factors is the size of the particles in the chitosan solution. Additional testing with different particle size shows the added strength within the fibers, although smaller particles tend to create a smaller diameter of threads. Overall, the strongest modified threads were created by combining two threads together while wet or adding graphene to the chitosan mixture. Small changes with material lead to great variations in the strain or the stress of the material, allowing for future applications.


1. Safe Biomedical Appliances

  • Degradable Wound Healing

  • Medicine transport

  • Antimicrobial agents

2. Biodegradable Fabric: biodegradble fabric into clothing or elastics.

3. Conductive Appliances: applied with CNT, nanofibers can be used for chips or nano processors.


  1. The positively charged chitosan binds well with the negatively charged sodium alginate. This cause the strong formation of the nanofibers.

  2. Bigger particles in the solutions create larger diameter fibers but cause shorter lengths of threads.

  3. Different concentrations can create various flexibilities that can be modified for several purposes.

  4. The drying process, which evaporates most of the weight and size of the thread, is best carried out at room temperature while wind dried.

  5. The solutions can be mixed with several materials to add tensile, flexibility or other properties, but the addition of CNT and Graphene can add conductivity to the thread.

Industrializing this chitosan-alginate thread into a full scale production should be the next step to fit the research into its applications. The motor and wheel roll method shows promising progress to industrializing this breakthrough.

In this work, Rayner and his mentors work explores ways to fabricate chitosan into threads.

Study on Coastal Change and Sea Surface Temperature in Jakarta Based on Remote Sensing

This project, Jonathan and his mentor carry out remote sensing data analysis to study the evolution of the coastline and sea surface temperatures around Jakarta area. The work is hoped to reveal additional insights about the geographic condition of the island in the last decade.

Amplifying the Atmospheric Water Harvesting Capabilities of Calcium Chloride via a Cellulose Sponge Medium

This project is about a machine that could harvest moisture in air with hygroscopic salts infused in a sponge and proceed further with the hope that this could be a reliable source of clean water.

Synthesis of Nanofibers from Chitosan and Alginate


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